Timeline: 1933 - 1945

German Reich Dachau Concentration Camp
1933
Adolf Hitler becomes Reich Chancellor:
the founding of the National Socialist dictatorship
Opening of a concentration camp for political prisoners near Dachau (March 22,1933)
1934
"Röhm Putsch" – the rise of the SS Murder of 21 NSDAP functionaries and political opponents who had been arrested during the "Röhm Putsch"
1935
Nuremberg Laws institutionalizing racial discrimination New prisoner groups are sent to the camp e.g. Jehova’s Witnesses, homosexuals, emigrants
1936
Heinrich Himmler becomes Chief of the German Police: the beginning of constructing a system of concentration camps Terror in the camp is intensified
1937
During mass arrests thousands are taken into “preventive custody” and sent to concentration camps Start of the erection of a new camp with a capacity for 6,000 prisoners
1938
Annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland
November Pogrom ("Reichskristallnacht")
Political opponents from the annexed territories are deported to the camp as well as over 11,000 German and Austrian Jews in November
1939
Attack on Poland: start of the Second World War Deportation of hundreds of Sinti and Roma to the Dachau Concentration Camp
1940
After the capitulation of France, French, Dutch, Belgian territory has been occupied und Luxemburg annexed
Over 13,000 prisoners are sent from Poland>
1941
Attack on the Soviet Union Start of the mass shooting of more than 4,000 Soviet prisoners of war
1942
"Wannsee Conference" on the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" "Invalid Transports" – more than 2,500 prisoners murdered with poison gas at Hartheim Castle near Linz
Start of medical experiments on prisoners
1943
"Total War": forced labour is radicalized in order to secure the "Final Victory" Start of the installation of more than 150 subsidiary camps in which the prisoners were subjected to perform forced labour for the armaments industry
1944
The Western Allies land in Normandy, Russian troops reach the eastern border of Germany 10,000 Jewish prisoners are killed "through work" in subsidiary camps
At the end of 1944, over 63,000 prisoners are in the Dachau concentration camp and its subsidiary camps: The catastrophic living conditions lead to the outbreak of a typhus epidemic
1945
Unconditional surrender (May 8, 1945), occupation and division of Germany Thousands die of typhus, in the course of evacuation marches or as a result of malnutrition
Founding of an International Prisoner Committee (CID)
Liberation of the camp by US Army troops (April 29, 1945)